Health

6 Eye Diseases That Cause Blindness – Cataract surgery, Glaucoma

Many people are afraid of losing their sight suddenly or through long-term eye disorders that lead to blindness. Eye diseases affect the majority of the population at some point in their lives, and this has a substantial impact on their quality of life, especially if they do not have access to treatment options. Cataract surgery is the most frequent surgical operation performed globally. Comprehensive eye exams with your ophthalmologist on a regular basis are essential for detecting these problems early on and tracking their development. Your eyes will receive prompt care as a result of this. Deteriorating eyesight is one of the most serious risks to our well-being as we become older. The following are the six most frequent conditions that lead to vision loss, each of which is treated in a unique manner:

  • Cataract surgery can restore vision in people who have lost it due to the disease.
  • Glaucoma-induced blindness is irreversible, but your residual sight can be maintained.
  • Some forms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) -induced blindness can be treated, which can help you see well.
  • Diabetic retinopathy, therapy is highly effective in halting, delaying, or even reversing eyesight loss. Faster detection and treatment mean better outcomes.
  • Some retinal disorders can lead to permanent vision loss or even blindness if left untreated. Vision preservation, improvement, or restoration is a possible therapy aim.
  • Amblyopia is a curable disease that often responds well to treatments like eye patches and corrective lenses.

Diseases that can lead to blindness:

Cataract:

Cataracts are the major cause of blindness in those over 40. Cataracts, on the other hand, can form at any age for a variety of reasons, including Smoking history and family history of cataracts, Obesity, Being exposed to ultraviolet light, Steroid medicine usage for an extended period of time, Injury to the eye, Eczema, Glaucoma, high blood pressure, a lack of essential nutrients (low levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids).  

Symptoms:

It’s possible you won’t have any symptoms at first. The signs and symptoms you experience depend on where and how big your cataract is. While it can affect either eye, it cannot transmit from one to the other. The following indications and symptoms are possible:

  • Blurred or distorted vision
  • Your pupil appears to be clouded over
  • The vision is hazy
  • Car headlight glare
  • Reading complications

Treatment:

Cataract surgery in Chennai is determined by how much vision is lost as a result of the condition. Surgery is the sole option if cataracts are interfering with your regular activities or affecting your general well-being.

  • Small incision cataract surgery
  • Extracapsular surgery
  • Laser-assisted cataract surgery 

Glaucoma:

 Glaucoma is a set of illnesses that damage the optic nerve and may be categorized as either open-angle or closed-angle. Closed-angle glaucoma can be more severe and painful, while open-angle glaucoma develops over time slowly and painlessly.

Both are considered to be caused by drainage problems in the trabecular meshwork and the effectiveness of Schlemm’s Canal, brought on by increasing intraocular pressure, age, heredity, and/or hypertension, although the nerve injury has no widely recognized explanation.

Symptoms:

The major symptom is generally a loss of peripheral vision. Other symptoms include:

  • Haloes surrounding light sources
  • Loss of sight
  • Redness in your eye or a foggy appearance in your eye (particularly in infants)
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • A stinging in the eyes

Treatment:

If you have high pressure in your eye, your doctor may use medicated eye drops, oral medicines, laser surgery, or microsurgery to relieve it.

  • Oral medication
  • Eye drops
  • Laser surgery
  • Trabeculoplasty
  • Iridotomy
  • Cyclophotocoagulation

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD):

AMD occurs when the macula, a small portion of the retina behind the eye, malfunctions. In comparison to any other disorder, AMD affects more people over the age of 50 than any other.

AMD is classified as either atrophic or exudative. Around 90% of AMD patients have the atrophic form, which can leave scarring in the macula as a result of AMD. A condition known as exudative AMD develops when fluids leak from the retina. Eyesight loss is more rapid in people with exudative AMD than in those with atrophic AMD.

Symptoms:

You may not have any symptoms if you have age-related macular degeneration in its early stages. Additionally, you may be experiencing signs and symptoms like as:

  • Areas of your eyesight that is dark, hazy, or completely white
  • Straight lines appearing wavy

Treatment:

Although there is no cure for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), therapy can delay the progression of the illness and help you avoid becoming blind completely.

  • Nutritional therapy is typically used to treat early-stage dry AMD.
  • Laser therapy.
  • Photodynamic laser therapy
  • Anti VEGF therapy

Diabetic retinopathy:

Having diabetes puts you at risk for developing diabetic retinopathy, which affects the small blood vessels in your retina and elsewhere in your body. Liquids leaking from the retina’s blood vessels are one aspect of this eye condition. Associated inflammation in the retina may ensue, resulting in blurred vision.

NPDR and PDR are the two types of diabetic retinopathy. NPDR is the less severe of the two (PDR). People who first develop diabetic retinopathy may develop NPDR, which is characterized by a lack of symptoms other than retinal inflammation or worn-out blood vessels.

Symptoms:

Early on in diabetic retinopathy, you may not notice any symptoms. As the disease worsens, you may experience:

  • Spots or black strands darting around in the corners of your eyes
  • A haze obscures eyesight
  • Vision that varies greatly
  • Your vision may have some dark or empty spots.
  • Loss of sight

Treatment:

  • Injecting Anti VEGF agents into the eye
  • Photocoagulation
  • Panretinal photocoagulation
  • Vitrectomy

 Retinal Disorders:

There is a vast range of retinal disorders, but they are all accompanied by visual symptoms.

To collect and organize visual information, the retina comprises millions of light-sensitive cells (rod and cones). This information is sent from the retina to the brain via the optic nerve, which allows you to see.

Symptoms:

  • Observing particles of dust or cobwebs in the air
  • A vision that is warped (straight lines appear wavy)
  • A problem with the peripheral eyesight
  • Blindness

Treatment:

  • Shrinking abnormal blood vessels
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Cryotherapy
  • Laser Therapy
  • Implanting a retinal prosthesis

Amblyopia:

Amblyopia (also known as lazy eye) is a form of impaired eyesight that affects only one eye. It occurs when the brain and the eye fail to function together properly, and the brain is unable to perceive the sight coming from one eye. Slowly, the brain begins to rely more and more on the stronger of the two eyes, while the vision in the weaker eye degrades.

When you have a “lazy eye,” one of your eyes isn’t working as hard as the other. People with Amblyopia, on the other hand, are not sluggish.

Symptoms:

  • An internal or outward wandering of the eyes.
  • Eyes that don’t seem to function together as they should.
  • Having a hard time telling how deep things are.
  • Closed eyes or squinting.
  • The inclination of the chin.
  • Anomalies discovered during eyesight screening.

Treatment:

  • Patching
  • Atropine eye drops
  • Optical penalization of the non-amblyopic eye

Wrapping Up:

Knowing the most illnesses of the eyes that lead to blindness might help you make better choices about your eye care in the near future.

It’s important to know about eye disorders before you can take precautions and begin treatment as soon as possible. Some of these diseases gradually damage your vision, while others happen suddenly.

The ability to make decisions comes from having access to information. When you are well-informed about your health risks, family history, and vision care, you will be able to make the best decisions for your eye’s health.

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